9. Climate analysis maps (map-XIII, pages 1 to 12)Pictograms
Each of the five pictograms specified in the following refers to the area of the corresponding climatope. The distribution follows the areal occurrence of emissions according to the emission inventory and takes into account the relative quantity of emissions on the respective map page.
The Residential building
pictogram mainly refers to residential areas with increased emissions from domestic fire. These areas are especially city centres and dense settlement area (e.g. barracks) as well as small towns and villages, in which solid fuels and fuel are the main heating sources.
pictogram indicates high areal emissions from traffic in the respective climatope and the main traffic routes are already marked by lines.
Both the Business
and the Industry
pictogram indicate enterprises with particularly high emissions. The differentiation between business and industry is based on the intensity and areal extent of the emissions.
The Earth basin
pictogram points to very high dust emissions and strong warming. It mainly describes quarries, gravel plants and brickworks, which are characterized by business climatopes.
The following pictograms describe local particularities, which are important for the concerning areas.
The Air pollution
pictogram marks areas with a high ambient air concentration of pollutants in regions with a high frequency of ground inversions. These are strongly cooling cold air catchment areas with high air pollution values due to nearby pollutant sources.
Regions with a high frequency of ground inversions and valleys often have ground or valley fog, especially in strongly cooled down cold air catchment areas and in valleys with open waters. Fog formation is not obligatorily related to particular land uses and this is why the Ground/Valley Fog
pictogram occurs in various climatopes.
The Elevated Inversion
pictogram refers to large and dominant heat islands in built-up areas. As a result of the relatively high surface temperature and the accompanied turbulences no ground inversion is formed and the lowest boundary of the inversion lies therefore several decametres above the ground.
The Wind Field Changes
pictogram indicates high buildings (tower blocks with at least ten floors) or particular ground rises (backfilling, dumps), at which the wind speed is slowed down, the wind direction redirected and flow turbulences increased.
The Wind Rose
pictogram represents the percentage distribution of the frequencies of wind directions as an annual average at one measuring point. Most of the recorded wind roses refer to the period between 1 May 1988 and 30 April 1989. They are complemented by several special measurement programmes from other periods with a duration of at least one year. A wind rose shows how frequent the wind blows from a particular direction on a long-term average. The frequency of lulls (calm frequency) is always indicated in the centre. This form of representation takes no account of the wind force.
The Air Pollution Wind Rose
pictogram combines the above-mentioned wind rose with immission measurements and displays the average measured ambient air concentration of air pollutants under the influence of the respective wind direction. This implies that both the wind and the pollutant concentration were simultaneously measured at the measuring point.
|© City of Stuttgart, Office for Environmental Protection, Section of Urban Climatology