10. Maps with indications for the planning (map-XIV, pages 1 to 12)
The inventory of the urban climatic conditions in the form of a climate analysis map is characterized by numerous pieces of information, which all have to be taken into consideration. The conversion of this information into evaluative planning recommendations is therefore a highly complex task.
The climatic atlas serves among other things as technical support of the land use planning. The maps with indications for the planning are to meet the requirements of this objective. They contain an integral evaluation of the circumstances presented on the climate analysis maps with regard to aspects relevant for the planning. The area classifications indicate the degree of sensitivity towards a change of use of the respective territory, connoting how important and urgent climate-related requirements and measures within urban land use planning are.
The indications for the planning are summarized in eight categories. Three planning recommendations refer to largely unbuilt areas (with the exception of single buildings in the unplanned suburban area and transport routes), four recommendations relate to built-up areas and one indication is used to characterize streets relevant for immissions.
The indications for the planning mainly refer to structural changes of use, especially three-dimensional (buildings, embankments and other constructions). Changing the vegetation structure generally has fewer climatic effects than large-scale sealing measures and the construction of buildings. Changing the vegetation structure, e.g. planting woods in the proximity of ventilation lanes, may sometimes even have undesirable effects. Situations like this, however, have been taken into consideration in the evaluation of changes of use in unbuilt areas.
The mapping of areal planning recommendations is based in particular on the corresponding representation on the climate analysis map, which was submitted to a classifying evaluation. The size of the area under investigation and the scale of the analyses inevitably lead to the necessity that details in the development plans have to be worked out in separate expert opinions if necessary. The maps of the climatic atlas will be of use in any case.
Besides local particularities, the indications for the planning are based on the following principles:
Vegetation areas have a significant effect on the local climate as they incite the production of fresh and cold air at night and have a thermally balancing effect during the day due to a high percentage of trees. Green spaces in the inner city and close to settlement areas have a positive influence on their direct surroundings in microclimatic terms. Furthermore, vegetation areas on the edge of settlement areas stimulate the mixing of the air. Larger cohesive vegetation areas represent the regeneration potential in terms of climate and air hygiene. They are particularly important for the mixing of the air in regions close to settlement areas. From a climatic point of view, open land is therefore not supposed to be used for construction purposes.
The development of valleys is also to be evaluated detrimentally as they act as transport route for cold and fresh air in times of little wind as well as air ventilation lanes for stronger regional winds.
The hillsides in large settled areas are to remain unbuilt, especially when the valley zones are developed, as this is where cold and fresh air is mainly transported. This is also true for openings and clefts within the hillsides.
Cols in built-up ridges serve as ventilation lanes and are not to be developed.
In terms of climate and air hygiene, we recommend the bordering of the settlements with green zones as large as possible as well as the planting of green corridors within towns and villages in due consideration of orographic characteristics (aeration openings, ventilation lanes) to support the mixing of the air. We have to work against urban sprawl resulting from numerous scattered settlements as well as the development of blocking development zones as a consequence of the merging of adjacent places. Urban settlements must possess large production areas of fresh and cold air and aeration channels in their close proximity.
As for the settlement of commercial and industrial businesses, we have to consider that residential areas in their immediate neighbourhood may not be loaded with increased immissions due to the local wind conditions.
|© City of Stuttgart, Office for Environmental Protection, Section of Urban Climatology